Here is my Arduino exercise video. Thank you for the detailed explanation on each page, Becky. It was super helpful.
Add More LEDs
The Amazon Kindle is one of the most popular ebook reader in the United States. It was exciting to get this product to unravel its inner workings.
Tools used to take apart the Kindle 2
To remove the Back Casing(1) of the product I used a metal chisel. I must say this was an exciting look into a product with electronics. I then used a screwdriver to remove the small screws and lifted the logic board and display assembly out of its plastic housing.
The Back Casing (1) and Front Casing (2) are made from Plastic that is obtained from oil through the process of injection molding. The Back Casing has speaker holes on the top right and left. Amazon is not discrete about what plastic they use for the production. However, when we are done using our Kindle we can send it back to Amazon and they will properly dispose it. The Keyboard (3) seems to be a blend of plastic and rubber. It’s has an elasticity, when we press any key, it comes back to its original position. The Metal Case (4) is a part behind the Electrophoretic Display (5). The display is held by a “window frame” of adhesive on the Front Casing (2). After a couple of gentle twists I was able to separate these parts. The Electrophoretic Display (5), is made of tiny titanium dioxide, hydrocarbons, black dye and oil.
The Keyboard (3) fit into the Front Casing (2). 16 screws (6) attach the Front Casing (2) to the Metal Casing (4).
The back of the Electrophoretic Display (5) has a mirrored shinny appearance and is sandwiched between these two pieces. The lower end of the Display is attached with a copper coated piece known as a Flex Circuit Connector (11) Flex circuits are typically manufactured in China using a polyimide (Kapton) material and one to multiple layers of copper. It is responsible for allowing electrical circuits to flow through the device. The Lithium Ion Battery (7), Controller Board (8) and EMI Shield (9) are secured with screws on the grey area of the Metal Case (4). The Lithium Ion Battery (7), is a rechargeable power source that is made using heavy metal such as Lithium, Cobalt and Lead making it extremely important to dispose correctly. The battery is Model No. S11S01A. It’s a 3.7 V, 1530 mAh lithium polymer. The Controller Board (8) is used for video cards and Random-access memory (RAM) which allows connection of different video source inputs to be selected and shown on a screen. The EMI Shield (9) is a metal piece attached on top of the Controller Board (8) to prevent electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI) from impacting sensitive electronics. The black piece (10) is attached to the red and black wire. It looked like a plastic part that felt like the control for the exterior button
The Logic Board (12) contains 7 chips that are protected by different EMI Shields (13). It also has a wireless card (16) that was inserted in its own Card Casing (15).
The wireless card (16) is by Oberthur Technologies , a French digital security comment that enables the Kindle to connect to the internet via radio wavelengths. Most of the chips are made by Freescale, Samsung and Epson. The main processor of the Kindle 2 is the Freescale chip which is labeled MCIMX353DjQ5C M99V BTHV1052C SNGPR (12 A). It is a 532 MHz, ARM-11 90nm 14mm package. The MC13892AJVL CTGL 1103K (12 B) is a Freescale battery management chip that is made in china. The Samsung semiconductor K4X1G323PC -8GD8 (12 C) is a Mobile-DDR SDRAM chip. There another Samsung SDRAM chip, KLM4G1EEER (12H). The WM8960 (12 D) is a low power, high quality stereo codec designed for portable digital audio application. The Atheros Chip (12E) supports for Kindle’s WiFi. The Texas instrument SN92009 A2 TL 11L A14G G4 (12 F) is the power management chip. The co-branded Epson and E-Ink chip (12 G) is the display controller. It is a PFBGA package that supports “high speed screen updates (2048×1536 at 50Hz+)
Interesting Design Elements:
The redesign of the Kindle 2 from its first generation seemed to have cleaner lines and carefully designed proportions. Despite new models, the Kindle 2 still has an evergreen design and personally I love the white. Additionally, the Kindle 2 is a good example of Design for Disassembly. I only required 2 tools (Metal Chisel and a Screwdriver) to take the whole tablet apart. This helps facilitate future changes and dismantlement for any parts that need to be replaced and recycled.
The materials in the pump were hard plastic (high-density polyethylene- HDPE), plastic tubing (polyurethane), gears (steel, gear oil, magnet), flexible diaphragms (polyurethane, hard plastic fittings to attach – HDPE), clips (HDPE), screws (steel), screw covers (polyurethane), circuit board (copper-plated fiberglass material, epoxy resin, polyamide and polyester film), resistors (metal, PVC insulation), capacitors (electrodes, metal plates, dielectric insulating material, ceramic material), microchip (semi-conductor material, silicon, wires -copper, PVC insulation), motor (steel, wire, brush, electro-magnet, gear oil).
Manufacturing techniques needed to make a breast pump include, but are not limited to, injection molding for hard plastic (reciprocating screw, venting air, coolant, ejector pins/sprue removal, stamping), machining aluminum mold for injection mold (16,000 lb machine, reamers, end mills, torque wrench, gauges, cobalt steel twist drill, coolant), electrical wire (copper block, lubricated pulleys dye and stretch, low voltage conductors, insulated plastic extrusion machine, coat with PVC, precision laser confirm uniformity, cool in water trough, stamp information, voltage test), plastic tubing (vacuum hose, dry, augers mix, heat, extruder, heat, cool in trough, pulled through water through rollers, laser measure uniformity, pull by conveyer), gears (automated band saw slice, drill, cool, turret with blades drill, stamp, titanium cutter shape gears’ insides, gear hopper cuts outside, furnace, inject with carbon, grinder), circuit board (cut board, apply resin and film, etch, chemical bath), resistors, capacitor, motor, microchip (ventilation, vacuum to maintain dust-free space, cut silicone, oxidize in furnace, centrifuge, stepper exposure machine, plasma etching).
To take apart the breast pump I used a Phillips-head screwdriver, a wrench, hand saws and my hands.
The designers chose to create a device that allows the machine to mimic the woman’s own baby’s sucking rhythm. By manually pumping, she can press a button on the handle when she finds a match. The machine will then repeat or ‘remember’ the timing. I don’t understand how this works but it is the selling point of this model.
An electric breast pump exists because the diaphragm covers the breast and the motor pulls at regular intervals mimicking the real experience so milk is released and expressed into an easy-to-use container. The action begins with sharp, short pulls of suction and then increases to longer and stronger motions. As a working mother this invention made my intentions for the health of my babies what I wanted.
Parts of the Breast Pump
- Hard Plastic Case
- Two silicone control knobs on top
- Silicone Tubes with three way plastic connectors
- Mother Board
- Motor (Inside – Copper wire encased in a cylinder which is creates a magnetic effect)
- Five part rotor disc made of silicone and plastic and attached to the motor
- Copper wire wrapped with cello tape and encased in a cuboid
- Seven Black and Red Wires coiled together and attached to the motherboard
- Wide silicone strips holding the motor in place
- Absorbent foam inside a plastic cylinder
- Sixteen nails
Tools used to take it apart of screw drivers
- Philips and Slotted Screw Drivers
- Xacto Knife
Design elements I liked about the device
- The colour
- The curved and old telephone like shape of the object
Both of these elements make it seem a bit more approachable and familiar device.
What I teardown is bop it. It was originally a talking and glowing guy, and the way to interact with it was mainly pressing the center part, pulling the blue feet and twisting the green feet. A round head contains the most important circuit boards and springs, and its two feet are mainly where batteries, some extended wires, buttons, small circuit boards, and mechanical parts are placed.
I first removed the shell on one side with a screwdriver and found that the battery is on its legs, not on its head. The buttons are located above the left leg and touch a small circuit board.
When I removed all its shell, I can see that the main chip is placed on its head. On the head chip board, there are various circuits extending to its legs. The ports of the circuit are connected with battery, buttons, lights and beads.
Next, I started to disassemble its head. When the plastic fixing piece was removed, a spring jumped out. This is why the head can be pressed.
When I further disassembled its head, a speaker was pasted on the back.
At this point, it still has the other half of the head that I haven’t removed it yet. You can see that the orange button corresponds to the button on the chip.
There is still a spring inside this half of the head, and a red lamp bead behind it.
Next is the teardown of the two feet, I will use a video to illustrate.
1. AA battery 2. Speaker 3. Fixed cover 4. Spring 5. Battery cover 6. Silicone button 7. Button 8. Shell 9. Screw（and Square nut） 10. Plastic lever 11. Polyethylene slider 12. Control button 13. Chip 14. Battery holder 15. Lamp bead 16. Circuit 17. Rebound spring
Manufacturing technique used to make it
- Debounce time setting(when you press on your standard mechanical switch, it hits the contact and then it bounces briefly from momentum of you hitting the key/switch, sometimes the momentum can be enough for the contacts to touch again and cause a double click. Debounce time is basically and amount of time that the switch doesnt register another click.)
- D1-D7 (Diode)
- Q1-Q3 (Tertiary tube)
- MS (Synchronous motor)
- GS (Synchronous generator)
- SP- (Speaker?)
- GND (Ground)
- BR (Bridge rectifier filter)
- T1 (Transformer)
- BB (Thermal relay)
- JMP1-JMP2 (Jumper?)
- C1-C3 (Capacitance)
- P20、P30、P33 (Electric power)
- R1-R15 (Resistor)
- J1-J2 (Jumper)
- BG (Backside Grinding)
- QB (Quit button?)
- Q4 (Tertiary tube)
- VCC (Voltage)
- BB (Thermal relay)
- D3、D4 (Diode)
- S1 (Switch)
- SP-、SP+ (Speaker?)
- S1 (Switch)
- P/T (?)
Design elements I am interested in
- Put the battery on its legs not in its head. (In addition to the realization of the function, the internal parts distribution must also consider its appearance. Its legs have just enough space for the battery, and it is easier for users to teardown.)
- Use the user’s pull and twist to press the button. (Make full use of the user’s behavior and use mechanical buttons to save costs.)